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Looking Up Values from Association Lists

Retrieving a value from an alist means looking up the key and returning the corresponding value. In our previous alist my-new-alist we want to get the green variable for the key color2.

As the alists are regular lists we could go ahead and figure out a way to iterate over the list, comparing each element's car with the given key and if we find something return the corresponding cdr. You are not ready to do that yet, but fortunately this isn't necessary anyway. As association lists are so fundamental that Guile provides a number of specific procedures that can be used directly.

Guile's alist Retrieval Procedures

Guile's procedures are documented in the reference, but looking at that page might be quite confusing at this moment.

There are two basic forms of procedures, and both come in three variants (and additionally everything is doubled for C and Scheme). The three variants differ in the method they use for determining a matching key, which Guile calls the “level of equality”. This is a discussion I would like to spare you for now, and you can keep in mind that as long as you stick to symbols as alist keys you should use the “q” variants of the procedures, assq and assq-ref. If at one point you should need other types as alist keys you have to get familiar with Scheme's concept of equality and Guile's/LilyPond's implementation of it (see Equality and Equivalence).

Different Return Targets

assq and assq-ref differ in what they return for the match: assq returns the (key . value) pair for a match while assq-ref returns just the value. Both return #f if the requested key is not present in the alist. Please note the annoying detail that the order of arguments is reversed: assq expects first the key while assq-ref wants the alist first:

guile> (assq 'color2 my-new-alist)
(color2 0.0 1.0 0.0)

guile> (assq-ref my-new-alist 'color2)
(0.0 1.0 0.0)

guile> (assq 'color4 my-new-alist)

guile> (assq-ref my-new-alist 'color4)

So which procedure should be used then, or which one in which situation? Generally it is more common that you want to use the value rather than the key-value pair, so this seems to indicate using assq-ref preferably. But while this is often true there is an important caveat: the behaviour with non-existent keys. As seen both procedures return #f if the key is not present in the alist, and in our example with the colors this probably doesn't cause any problems. However, the issue becomes crucial when #f is a valid value in the alist.

guile> (define bool-alist
       '((subdivide . #t)
         (use-color . #f)))

guile> (assq-ref bool-alist 'use-color)

guile> (assq-ref bool-alist 'use-colors)

Both invocations return #f, but only in one case this refers to the actual value of the entry, while in the other it is the result of the key not being present.

Please don't think this is only used to catch typing errors - as this example might suggest. It is very common to process alists where it is not known which keys are present. In such cases you have to use assq and unfold the resulting pair yourself:

guile> (assq 'use-color bool-alist)
(use-color . #f)

guile> (assq 'use-colors bool-alist)

guile> (cdr (assq 'subdivide bool-alist))

The pair with #f as its cdr indicates an actual false value while the plain #f refers to a missing key. Unpacking the cdr of the result is a minor hassle, but there still is an issue that you can't handle at the moment: when the return value is #f (i.e. the key is not present) you can't extract the cdr from that (just try out (cdr #f)). In order to properly handle the situation you will have to wait a little longer until you have digested conditionals.

Caveat: About the Uniqueness of alist Keys

Both assq and assq-ref return the value for the first occurence of the key in the alist. This is important because Scheme has no inherent way to guarantee that keys in alists are unique. If you think of the fact that alists are regular lists with a specific form then this is pretty clear - how should there a way for enforcing uniqueness?

In the next chapter you will see how one can take care of uniqueness when adding entries to an alist, but as long as you can't directly control an alist you have to expect duplicate keys.

guile> (define al
'((col1 . 1)
  (col2 . 2)
  (col1 . 3)))
guile> (assq 'col1 al)
(col1 . 1)

Last update: November 3, 2022