# Booleans¶

*Boolean expressions* are expressions that represent a “true” or ”false” value. This sounds trivial, but in fact, although *any* programming language relies on having some boolean representation , there are significant differences in how they are actually handled.

Scheme has two explicit constants for true and false, namely `#t`

and `#f`

. They start with the `#`

hash sign, therefore it has to be stressed that *in LilyPond* these constants have to be written with *two* hash signs, one for switching to Scheme and the other as part of the constant itself. This is consequent but often causes confusion:

```
guile>#t
#t
guile>#f
#f
```

but

```
\paper {
ragged-bottom = ##t
ragged-last-bottom = ##f
}
```

`#t`

vs. ”A true value”¶

We have already encountered booleans in predicates, which are procedures that evaluate to `#t`

or `#f`

. However, beside the two boolean *constants* there is the concept of “true value” and “false value”. Expressions that “have a true value” do *not* necessarily “evaluate to `#t`

”. Rather they are everything that is not `#f`

. This distinction will become important when we talk about conditionals.