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Strings are sequences of characters and more or less handle what we see as text in documents. From the perspective of data processing and programming languages dealing with strings is surprisingly complex, and working with strings is a fundamental task also when you're writing Scheme in LilyPond. Guile provides a large number of functions for string processing, but we'll only cover a few specific aspects in this “data types” introduction. You can find all details about Scheme's string processing in the Guile manual.

Writing Strings

In Scheme strings are always written using double quotes. Other languages understand single and double quotes interchangeably or with subtly different meanings, but single quotes are reserved for a completely different purpose in Scheme:

guile> "Hello"

guile> Hello
ERROR: Unbound variable: Hello
ABORT: (unbound-variable)

guile> 'Hello'

The first example enters a string that evaluates to itself - strings are self-evaluating, literals, constants in Scheme. The second example interprets the input as a name for a variable that has not been defined yet. And the final example interprets the input as a “quoted symbol”, with the trailing single quote characteristically being part of the symbol. You will read more about both cases in symbols and quoting.

As you have seen in the section about including Scheme in LilyPond LilyPond's parser treats strings specially and doesn't require an explicit switch to Scheme mode through #. For all strings that don't contain any special characters and that are single words you don't even have to use quotation marks. As said the first three of the follwoing assignments are equivalent while for the last one the quotation marks are mandatory:

\header {
  title = #"MyPiece"
  title = "MyPiece"
  title = MyPiece
  title = "My Piece"

Escaping Special Characters

There are a number of special characters that can't directly be inserted in strings, although Guile/LilyPond supports Unicode out-of-the-box. Inserting such non-standard characters is done using “escaping”: the parser sees an escape character and treats the immediately following content as a special object. In Scheme - just like in many other languages - this escape character is the \ backslash.

Quotation Marks

The most obvious character that has to be escaped is the double quote itself - as the parser would interpret this as the end of the string by default:

\header {
  title = "My \"Escape\" to Character Land"
  subtitle = "Where things can go "terribly" wrong"

In this example the title is escaped correctly while in the second example the quotes break the string variable, which you can already see from the syntax highlighting. LilyPond will in this case produce a pretty confusing error message but will at least point you to the offending line of the input file.

Note: this is only true for straight double quotes. From a typographical perspective it is often better to use typographical (or "curly") quotes anyway (e.g. “English”, „Deutsch“ or «Français»). These don't need escaping.

The backslash

So if the backslash is used to indicate an escape character how can a backslash be used as a character in text? Well, in a way that's self-explaining: through escaping it. To print a backslash you have to escape it - with a backslash:

\markup "This explains the \\markup command."

Arbitrary Escaped Characters

There is a list of other special ASCII characters in the reference from which you're most likely to come across the newline \n and the tabulator \t escape sequences.

However, there's a last item we want to discuss here: arbitrary special characters. The reference page linked just above states that using the \x escape sequence it is possible to address characters numerically. But while this only works for the very limited set of ASCII characters and doesn't support Unicode in general, this isn't generally possible for use in LilyPond strings. There are cases where it is possible while others don't work, but it can be said that it is generally not recommended. Instead there are two options to include special characters, apart from the option of directly including the special characters in the input files - if all participating modules support that.

It is possible to encode special characters using their Unicode code point either as hexadecimal or as decimal numbers. Alternatively LilyPond provides a number of ASCII escape sequences which can be made available from within a \paper block:

\paper {

Both options as well as a list of escape sequences (which are modeled after HTML escape sequences) can be found in LilyPond's documentation

Last update: November 3, 2022